**Convolutional Neural Network Tutorial (CNN / ConvNets)**

Table of Contents

Here we will learn about Convolutional Neural Network Tutorial. So, First of all, you should know about, what is Convolutional Neural Network. And How the Convolutional Neural Network works.

“Convolutional Neural Network (CNN / ConvNets) is a class of deep neural networks by which image classification, image recognition, face recognition, Object detection, etc. can be done. And the use of Convolutional Neural Network is widely used in today’s technologies. Convolutional Neural Network is also known as ConvNets.”

**What is Convolutional Neural Networks ****(CNN / ConvNets)**?

**(CNN / ConvNets)**?

Convolutional Neural Network is a part of the Deep Neural Network to analyzing and classifying the visual images. It is used in the areas of image classification and image recognition of the object, faces, handwritten character, traffic signs, and many more. Convolutional Neural Network(CNN / ConvNets) is widely used in powering vision in robots and self-driving cars.

**Application of Convolutional Neural Networks ****(CNN / ConvNets)**:

**(CNN / ConvNets)**:

The real-life application of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) are:

- Face Recognition
- Image Classification
- Object Detection
- Segmentation
- Computer Vision
- Self-driving cars that leverage CNN based vision systems.
- Classification of crystal structure
- And many More.

**Working Process of Convolutional Neural Networks ****(CNN / ConvNets)**

**(CNN / ConvNets)**

Convolutional Neural Network is based on the neural network first takes the input as an image, process it, and classifies to produce the category of the image with full information (Eg. Cat, Dog, Man, Women, etc).

The input image resolution has an array of a pixel which have Height Weight and Dimension). Normally RGB image has 6 x 6 x 3 array of a matrix in which 3 refers as the RGB value and for the grayscale image have 4 x 4 x 1 array of a matrix in which 1 refers as the Gray color.

First, to create the model of Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) by training and testing the related dataset to produce an efficient model. Each image is passed through the series of convolution layers with filters (kernels) and pooling (Max-Pooling), fully connected layers, and at last apply classifiers as SoftMax function to classify an object with a probabilistic value between 0 and 1.

Convolutional Neural Network is implemented by using a convolution Layer, Max Pooling, fully connected, and SoftMax for classification. The details of the layers are given below.

**Convolution Layer**

The convolution layer is also known as the Kernel layer and shortly named as Conv layer. In this layer, the input image has the dimension of 5 x 5 x 1 which means the image is in grayscale and have the dimension 5 x 5 pixel.

- 1 0 1 = Kernal / Filter

0 1 0 - 1 0 1

Let’s discuss the convolution layer, convolution layer is the building block of convolutional neural network. The convolution layer has the filter layer for filtering the image pixel. The convolution layer computes the output of the neurons which is connected to the receptive field in the input, each computing a dot product between their weights and a small receptive field. For example, in the above figure 3 and figure 4.

The image represents the 5 x 5 matrix value and the kernel matrix takes a 3 x 3 filter. At each position, the window has multiplied the values of the 3 x 3 in the window. When all the positions is produced a value then the matrix called a rectified feature map. The feature map goes to the Pooling layer for pooling.

**Pooling Layer**

In the pooling the highest pixel value from the region depending on the size from the rectified feature map. In other words, pooling takes the largest value from the window of the image currently covered by the kernel. The pooling layer is used to reduce the dimensions, which help in reducing the overfitting.

The spatial pooling is also known as sub sampling or down sampling. The spatial pooling of different type:

- Max Pooling:- It gives the highest element from the rectified feature map.
- Average Pooling:- It gives the average of the rectified feature map.
- Sum Pooling:- It gives the sum of all the rectified feature map.

Generally, Max Pooling is used to reduce the dimensionality of each map but retains important information.

In this example, the convolved feature matrix is of 4 x 4, by max-pooling the largest value from the 2×2 filter matrix with stride 2. In the max-pooling, the highest element is selected and other elements are discarded. And then the final rectified feature map goes to the fully connected layer.

**Fully Connected Layer (FC Layer)**

First, the flattened the matrix into a vector and feed it into a fully connected layer. The fully connected layer like a neural network. The network is given below.

In the fully connected layer (FC Layer) the featured map matrix is converted into a vector as an input. And combine all these features to create a model. And at last, the activation function is used to classify the images (cat, dog, bat, man, apple, etc) by using SoftMax or sigmoid function. Generally, the SoftMax activation function is used for classification.

There are many architectures of Convolutional Neural Network like:

**Convolutional Neural Network Tutorial**

**People also want to know** **in Convolutional Neural Network**

**What is convolutional neural network?**

**Convolutional Neural Network **is also known as **ConvNets**. **Convolutional Neural Network** is a part of the **Deep Neural Network** to analyzing and classifying the visual images. It is used in the areas of image classification and image recognition of the object, faces, handwritten character, traffic signs, and many more.

**How does convolutional neural network work?**

**Convolutional Neural Network** works in layers. First, to create the model of Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) by training and testing the related dataset to produce an efficient model. Each image is passed through the series of convolution layers with filters (kernels) and pooling (Max-Pooling), fully connected layers, and at last apply classifiers as SoftMax function to classify an object with a probabilistic value between 0 and 1.

**Why convolutional neural network?**

**Convolutional Neural Network (ConvNets)** is used in **Computer vision** for classification of the images by using the models of neural networks.

**How to train convolutional neural network?**

**Convolutional Neural Network** is trained by using a convolution Layer, Max Pooling, fully connected, and SoftMax for classification.

**Do convolutional neural networks learn class hierarchy?**

Yes,** Convolutional Neural Network** is learn the class by** hierarchical** because when a growing number of classes, the accuracy usually decreases, and the possibilities of confusion increase. **So, the class confusion patterns follow the hierarchical structure over the classes.**

**When to use convolutional neural network?**

**Convolutional Neural Network is used in**

Face Recognition

Image Classification

Object Detection

Segmentation

Computer Vision

Self-driving cars that leverage CNN based vision systems.

Classification of crystal structure

And many More.

**Why convolutional neural network for image classification?**

**Convolutional Neural Network is used in Image Classification** Because It classifies the image by using** Deep Neural Network** with good accuracy and easy to use.

**Convolutional Neural Network Tutorial**

Convolutional Neural Network Tutorial is a part of computer vision for image detection or image classification By using Deep Learning Technology.

Nice introduction to convolutional neural network.

Nice introduction to convolutional neural network. Great article.

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Nice explanation of CNN model in simple and informative way.Keep it up

Convolutional Neural Network Tutorial

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